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Hadoop Distributed File System

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What is HDFS

Hadoop comes with a distributed file system called HDFS. In HDFS data is distributed over several machines and replicated to ensure their durability to failure and high availability to parallel application.

It is cost effective as it uses commodity hardware. It involves the concept of blocks, data nodes and node name.

Where to use HDFS

Very Large Files: Files should be of hundreds of megabytes, gigabytes or more.

Streaming Data Access: The time to read whole data set is more important than latency in reading the first. HDFS is built on write-once and read-many-times pattern.

Commodity Hardware:It works on low cost hardware.

Where not to use HDFS

Low Latency data access: Applications that require very less time to access the first data should not use HDFS as it is giving importance to whole data rather than time to fetch the first record.

Lots Of Small Files:The name node contains the metadata of files in memory and if the files are small in size it takes a lot of memory for name node's memory which is not feasible.

Multiple Writes:It should not be used when we have to write multiple times.

HDFS Concepts

Blocks: A Block is the minimum amount of data that it can read or write.HDFS blocks are 128 MB by default and this is configurable.Files n HDFS are broken into block-sized chunks,which are stored as independent units.Unlike a file system, if the file is in HDFS is smaller than block size, then it does not occupy full block?s size, i.e. 5 MB of file stored in HDFS of block size 128 MB takes 5MB of space only.The HDFS block size is large just to minimize the cost of seek.

Name Node: HDFS works in master-worker pattern where the name node acts as master.Name Node is controller and manager of HDFS as it knows the status and the metadata of all the files in HDFS; the metadata information being file permission, names and location of each block.The metadata are small, so it is stored in the memory of name node,allowing faster access to data. Moreover the HDFS cluster is accessed by multiple clients concurrently,so all this information is handled bya single machine. The file system operations like opening, closing, renaming etc. are executed by it.

Data Node: They store and retrieve blocks when they are told to; by client or name node. They report back to name node periodically, with list of blocks that they are storing. The data node being a commodity hardware also does the work of block creation, deletion and replication as stated by the name node.

HDFS DataNode and NameNode Image:

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