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Sep 1, 2019
Stay with us to learn about 25 main branches and divisions of biological science which are famous and  encountered by us, mostly  in our daily life.

 Here is the list 25 main branches

 1- Zoology

2- Botany

3- Microbiology


5- Anatomy


7- Cell Bilogy

8- Physiology

9- Genetics

10- Embrology


12- Paleontology

13- Environmental Biology

14- Sociobiology

15- Parasitology

16- Biotechnology

17- Immunology

18- Entomology

19- Pharmacology

20- Molecular biology

21- Biophysics

22- Biochemistry

23- Bio mathematics

24- Bio geography

25- Bio economics

Divisions of biology

Umbrella of biology mainly covers three vast fields which are called divisions of biological sciences.  These are defined as follows.

Farm animals

Animal farming not only enables small farmers self sufficient for protein food food but their sale also provide instant money when needed

1- ZOOLOGY (/zuˈɒlədʒi, zoʊ-/) This division of biology deals with the study of animals. For Example: Wild animals, farm animals, pets etc

 2- BOTANY (/BAWT-(ə)-nee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of plants.

                 For Example: The study of your favorite plants  i.e. rose, maple tree, onion etc. Plants may be herbs, shrubs, trees, creepers, flowering, non flowering, vegetable plants, fruits plants etc.


3- MICROBIOLOGY (/MIKE-rō-bī-AWL-ə-jee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, microscopic fungus, algae etc.

Main branches of biology

bacterial cells, a best example of microorganism

Pathogenic bacterial cells seen by microscope in host organism

1- Morphology: (/mɔːˈfɒlədʒi/) This branch deals with the study of form, size, shape and structure of living organisms. e.g. skin color, height, shape of limbs etc.

2- Anatomy (/ə-NAT-ə-mee/)  The study of internal structures of  living organism by dissection is called anatomy e.g. internal structure of kidney.

3- Histology (/hist-TAWL-ə-jee/)  The microscopic study of structure tissues of organisms is called histology e.g. study of muscles, adipose, connective tissue etc.

4- Cell biology: The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division. e.g. muscle cell.

5- Physiology (/fizz-ee-AWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms e.g. working of muscles.

DNA molecule, responsible for heredity

DNA, a heredity molecule. It controls heredity by natures secret codes hidden in the nucleotide sequence.

6- Genetics  (/dʒəˈnɛtɪks/) The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics. Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other e.g. Blood group genetics.

Embryology. figure showing the stages of chick development

chick development stages from egg to fully developed chick in 21 days. differentiation and organogenesis can be clearly seen

7- Embryology (/em-bree-AWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual e.g. study of various stages of chick development.

8- Taxonomy (/takˈsɒnəmi/) It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups. e.g. identification of taxonomic position of a newly discovered animal species in an area.  

9- Paleontology (/pæl.i.ɒnˈtɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms e.g. estimating age of the dinosaurs skeleton.

10- Environmental biology: It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment. For Example: effect of pollution on human health or human activities which increase pollution on planet.

mongooses mother protecting her pups , a best example of sociobiology

Mongoose mother can put even her own life at risk while protecting her pups

11- Socio-biology: This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societies.For Example: protective behavior of mothers to their offspring, killing of cubs by male lion to reduce competition in their offspring.

12- parasitology (/pare-ə-sə-TAWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of parasites e.g. study of mosquito, bacteria. worms harming the bodies of animals are all parasites. Plants also have other parasitic plants i.e. cuscuta.

Gene splicing producing rDNA.

The process by which the DNA of an organism is cut and a gene, perhaps from another organism, is inserted, is called Gene splicing. It is often used in industry to allow single-celled organisms to produce useful products, such as human insulin.

13- Biotechnology (/baɪ.əʊ.tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/) It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind. Its best example is using bacteria for producing human hormones  such as Insulin, growth hormones etc.

14- Immunology (/IM-yə-NAWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the immune system of animals, which defends the body against invading microbes. For Example: How White blood cells engulf foreign particles is actually an immunity study.

Red cotton bug, a serious pest of cotton

Dysdercus cingulatus is a true bug generally called as the red cotton stainer. It is a dangerous sucking pest of cotton mainly and attack other plants as well, such as okra, citrus and jute etc. Adults and older nymphs of this bug feed on the emerging bolls and the cotton seeds, also transmitting cotton staining fungi which deteriorate lint quality.

15- Entomology (/en.təˈmɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of insects.For Example: If some one wounder why ants form Que and how honeybees search for insects, all this come in Entomology.

16- Pharmacology (/fɑː.məˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of drugs (medicines) and their effects on the systems of human body. For Example: If a doctor is studying the effects of cinchona bark extract on malaria patient, he is studying pharmacology.

17- Molecular biology (biochemistry /ˌbaɪ.əʊˈkem.ɪ.stri/ ) It deals with the study of the molecules of life. For Example: Study of role of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids molecules in maintaining life.
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