I will suggest you to start this answer by saying:
Not directly. However, Facter reads in custom facts from a special subset of environment variables. Any environment variable with a prefix of FACTER_ will be converted into a fact when Facter runs.
Now explain the interviewer with an example:
4 $ FACTER_FOO=”bar”
$ export FACTER_FOO</span>
$ facter | grep ‘foo’</span>
foo => bar
The value of the FACTER_FOO environment variable would now be available in your Puppet manifests as $foo, and would have a value of ‘bar’. Using shell scripting to export an arbitrary subset of environment variables as facts is left as an exercise for the reader.