Right answer is (d) All of the mentioned
For explanation I would say: Bindings: The bindings of the algorithm are the connections between specific variables in the action. Bindings, as ordering, only occur when it is absolutely necessary.
Causal Links: Causal links in the algorithm are those that categorically order actions. They are not the specific order (1,2,3) of the actions, rather the general order as in Action 2 must come somewhere after Action 1, but before Action 2.
Plan Space: The plan space of the algorithm is constrained between its start and finish. The algorithm starts, producing the initial state and finishes when all parts of the goal is been achieved.