OOPS Concepts in Java with Examples
What is OOPS?
Object Oriented Programming is a programming concept that works on the principle that objects are the most important part of your program. It allows users create the objects that they want and then create methods to handle those objects. Manipulating these objects to get results is the goal of Object Oriented Programming.
Object Oriented Programming popularly known as OOP, is used in a modern programming language like Java
Core OOPS concepts are
The class is a group of similar entities. It is only an logical component and not the physical entity. For example, if you had a class called “Expensive Cars” it could have objects like Mercedes, BMW, Toyota, etc. Its properties(data) can be price or speed of these cars. While the methods may be performed with these cars are driving, reverse, braking etc.
An object can be defined as an instance of a class, and there can be multiple instances of a class in a program. An Object contains both the data and the function, which operates on the data. For example - chair, bike, marker, pen, table, car, etc.
Inheritance is an OOPS concept in which one object acquires the properties and behaviors of the parent object. It’s creating a parent-child relationship between two classes. It offers robust and natural mechanism for organizing and structure of any software.
Polymorphism refers to the ability of a variable, object or function to take on multiple forms. For example, in English, the verb run has a different meaning if you use it with a laptop, a foot race, and business. Here, we understand the meaning of run based on the other words used along with it.The same also applied to Polymorphism.
An abstraction is an act of representing essential features without including background details. It is a technique of creating a new data type that is suited for a specific application. For example, while driving a car, you do not have to be concerned with its internal working. Here you just need to concern about parts like steering wheel, Gears, accelerator, etc.
Encapsulation is an OOP technique of wrapping the data and code. In this OOPS concept, the variables of a class are always hidden from other classes. It can only be accessed using the methods of their current class. For example - in school, a student cannot exist without a class.
Association is a relationship between two objects. It defines the diversity between objects. In this OOP concept, all object have their separate lifecycle, and there is no owner. For example, many students can associate with one teacher while one student can also associate with multiple teachers.
In this technique, all objects have their separate lifecycle. However, there is ownership such that child object can’t belong to another parent object. For example consider class/objects department and teacher. Here, a single teacher can’t belong to multiple departments, but even if we delete the department, the teacher object will never be destroyed.
A composition is a specialized form of Aggregation. It is also called "death" relationship. Child objects do not have their lifecycle so when parent object deletes all child object will also delete automatically. For that, let’s take an example of House and rooms. Any house can have several rooms. One room can’t become part of two different houses. So, if you delete the house room will also be deleted.
Advantages of OOPS:
OOP offers easy to understand and a clear modular structure for programs.
Objects created for Object-Oriented Programs can be reused in other programs. Thus it saves significant development cost.
Large programs are difficult to write, but if the development and designing team follow OOPS concept then they can better design with minimum flaws.
It also enhances program modularity because every object exists independently.
Comparison of OOPS with other programming styles with help of an Example
Let's understand with example how OOPs is different than other programming approaches.
Programming languages can be classified into 3 primary types
Unstructured Programming Languages: The most primitive of all programming languages having sequentially flow of control. Code is repeated through out the program
Structured Programming Languages: Has non-sequentially flow of control. Use of functions allows for re-use of code.
Object Oriented Programming: Combines Data & Action Together.