Yes, it is possible.
Yet, this question doesn’t have a straight answer since we can store massive amounts of data differently on the basis of the different configurations of Tableau Server implementation (such as 8 cores, 16 cores, etc.). Not just if Hyper is used or not, but other factors like server memory may also affect the amount of the data we can store.
Note: When dumping large amounts of data on Tableau Server, we have to make sure that this data volume should not affect the dashboard’s performance and the response time, and also, the processing time for extracts. This is where Tableau’s efficiency is enhanced by Hyper.