Project management process groups have all of the following characteristics except:
a All of the process groups are needed on all projects and all of their interactions apply to each phase of a project as well as the overall project.
b The process groups are seldom one-time, discrete events; they are overlapping activities that occur throughout the project.
c Where a project is divided into phases, the process groups are invoked as appropriate.
d The process groups are linked by the outputs they produce.